“the Tempest in my mind Doth from my senses take all feeling else”
Lear is saying that the tempest (the big storm) in his mind is confusing him and taking away all rationality of thought. He says he isn’t listening to any of his other emotions and feelings as there is so much going on in his head like a storm that he has blown out of proportion
“this tempest will not give me leave to ponder On things would hurt me more”
the Storm in his head will not leave him so that he can think things through. Lear is saying that he cannot think about what is going on around him because he is so locked up inside the storm in his head.